Sex at its best

Heart Of Love


By Spencer D Gear

In the early 1990s, I was travelling through Wellington, NSW, Australia (between Orange and Dubbo) on my way from Canberra to Queensland. In the men’s public toilet I read this graffiti:

‘You saw him, you liked him;You liked him, you loved him;You loved him, you let him;You let him; you lost him’. [1]

Young people, will you be like the teenager who said: “I always thought of myself as a good kid with decent morals. I just wanted freedom and tried to achieve what I thought would be maximum pleasure.  I became painfully disappointed when I found guilt instead of freedom, pain instead of love, suffering instead of pleasure, and distance instead of closeness.” [2]


This is a permissive, wicked society. Wherever you turn, you are bombarded with sexual/sensual messages that are meant to turn you on sexually. It is far worse for you than it was for me as a teenager over (well) 35 years ago.

Recently my wife reminded me of the Brisbane radio announcer in the late 1960s who played the song, “Let it all hang out.” He said something like: “If I did that, I would be charged with indecent exposure.” If I remember correctly, he was fired before the end of the next song. Now compare that with what you hear on most radio stations.

In this climate you are being sold some myths or half truths:[3]

1. Sex is purely a physical need that is unrelated to the past, has no ramifications for the future, and has no or few negative implications for the present.

2. Others aren’t going through what I am going through. They have it all together.

3. It is possible to be sexually active without harm. There are no lingering consequences. Sex doesn’t touch your inner self.

4. Our immediate choices do not bear results into the future.

5. When things go wrong and relationships fall apart, or we can’t get into a meaningful relationship without self-destructing, we blame ourselves for not being able to cope, instead of examining the practices of our lives.

6. I am making my sexual decisions independent of society, culture, and my immediate environment.

Because of the way sex operates (the way it was designed to do so by God), these myths promote a delusion that overlooks this fact:

The devastating power of sex reverberates through

  • your emotions,
  • your mind,
  • your spirit, and
  • your body.


Dr. Givens notes how sex affects women: “Casual affairs so tax a person’s energy and self-esteem that few [women] pursue recreational sex for long periods of time. They lose respect, both for themselves and for their partners.”[4]  This emotional pain generally won’t be experienced during the relationship, but at the end when she feels like an object that has been used.

One woman who had been into casual sex compared the feeling to “dry ice tearing off a layer of skin.” [5]  This is because for a woman sex is woven in closely with the whole relationship. Loose, casual sex cuts deep into a woman’s being.

We can argue for equal pay, equal working conditions, equal vote, equality before God, and stacks of other ways men and women are equal. But we must never conclude that equality equals sameness.

Women, you lose more than your dignity when you jump into bed with some bloke who claims he loves you. As one women said, based on experience:

None of us is “capable of sailing off into the airy brightness of a concluded love affair… Inevitably there are consequences both internal and external. If bodies are being killed all over the world because of politics rather than love, spirits are being smashed right next door, in apartment houses and shacks and on the street because of love.” [6]


It is said that a woman “gives sex” but a man “scores.” But sex before marriage has its definite down side for men, although the idea of losing something doesn’t generally affect the man as much as the woman. Of course, he can be affected by a love affair gone bad, but believe it or not, it’s the spiritual dimension that eventually catches up with the man.

Remember Paul’s words to men about marriage: In Ephesians 5:25, “Husbands, love your wives, just as Christ loved the church and gave himself up for her.” God’s agape love is a giving kind of love.

Yet, men when they are courting, play the taking, taking, taking game. When they finally commit to marriage, they don’t have what it takes to go the distance for real love. Their inner strength is spent.

I do not find it surprising that the growing divorce rate goes hand in glove with the sexually loose culture we live in.

Why are women torn up inside by loose sex. Why are men not wanting to make the long-term commitment?



Just Love


You put sex into dating and you’ve got an explosive, destructive mixture. When you join with another person outside marriage, an intimate identity is developed as two blend into one. Then it ends; the fabric of the unity is ripped apart.

This is what the apostle Paul was talking about in I Corinthians 6:

“The body is not meant for sexual immorality, but for the Lord, and the Lord for the body… Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body, but he who sins sexually sins against his own body. Do you not know that your body is a temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in you, whom you have received from God? You are not your own; you were bought at a price. Therefore honor God with your body” (vv 13, 18-20).

Because of this spiritual, psychological, emotional and physical bonding that takes place, when you break off the relationship, the deepest part of your inner being is ripped apart. Spiritually and emotionally you are damaged.

And premarital sex can become compulsive/addictive. You think you are getting what you want–sexual freedom. But you are getting sexual bondage.

Jesus nailed it: “I tell you the truth, everyone who sins is a slave to sin” (John 8:34). To try something once is one of the great deceptions. You try sex outside of marriage once and you will find it difficult to stop. The appetite grows into a hunger that must be satisfied.

In my counselling I come across people who have come from a wild sexual past and they find it almost impossible to build a lasting relationship. The bonding has been too strong. You may think you are indulging your sexual appetite with Mr Macho or Miss Sensational. But you will gain a master that will control you.

There is a deep spiritual factor involved in the sexual relationship–worship.

First Corinthians 6:16-17 says: “Do you not know that he who unites himself with a prostitute is one with her in body? For it is said, ‘The two will become one flesh.’ But he who unites himself with the Lord is one with him in spirit” (NIV).

Young people, you have got to see this: sex is a spiritual issue. It is impossible for you to commit sexual immorality and still be one with God. Sex has a strong spiritual dimension, as I Cor. 6: 13 says: “The body is not for immorality, but for the Lord; and the Lord is for the body.”

The infamous Jim Bakker of PTL television fame commented as his ministry lay in tatters: “It’s amazing how fifteen minutes can ruin your life.”[7] What he did not say was: Not just any fifteen minutes, but fifteen minutes of immorality because of the spiritual bonding and identity.

While Paul speaks of becoming one with a prostitute in I Cor 6:16, he expands it to general immorality is I Cor 6:18, “Flee from sexual immorality. All other sins a man commits are outside his body but he who sins sexually sins against his own body.”

DO YOU WANT SEX AT ITS BEST? You must surrender your rights to Jesus Christ. You must choose with your actions (not just words) to follow Jesus as Lord. This means refusing to yield to sexual temptation and fleeing sexual immorality. Does your walk match your talk? God says through Paul, “They claim to know God, but by their actions they deny him” (Titus 1:16).

cloudclipart (public domain)

But, you ask:



This is a puzzle many people grapple with – not just the young. Why should sex with a permanent partner outside of marriage (even in a defacto relationship) be any different than monogamous marriage? Many think the essential elements of both are identical. The difference is this: God designed marriage; human beings designed the live-in, look-alike, defacto relationship.

I am indebted to Al Haffner for this illustration:

“Consider this: ‘It is possible to analyze an apple and ascertain its chemical constituents; but all the chemists in the world cannot make an apple, nor anything that can substitute for it.’ Neither can the world make any relationship do what marriage does, not even a monogamous love affair.”[8]

In our way of thinking, there is a vast separation between a faithful lover and one who sleeps around. From God’s point of view, He lumps all sex outside of marriage into the same heap because sex makes a spiritual statement.

“Inside marriage it is the melodious beauty of spiritual serenity; outside of marriage, even in a monogamous relationship, sex cries out a cacophony of spiritual chaos.” [9]

When you indulge in “sexual immorality, impurity, lust, evil desires and greed” this amounts to idolatry, according to Colossians 3:5-6, because it is self-serving selfishness, opposed to serving God and “because of these, the wrath of God is coming.”



Ladybird Mating

Ladybird mating (Public Domain)


Sex has such a bonding effect that it rips the heart out of people premaritally involved, especially when they part.

Then take a look at what is happening with the devastation of sexually transmitted diseases. They are spreading like wild-fire. The World Health Organization estimates that there are 250 million cases of sexually transmitted diseases each year. It is largely those who have advocated a permissive approach to sex who have helped produce this epidemic–not those advocating abstinence.

In 1981 there were 20 different STDs, 1984 there were 28 different STDs, 1988 there were 51. In 1992 they were approaching 60 STDs, with a new one discovered every nine months. They can cause birth defects, infertility, life-long pain, cancer and other diseases. Most young people do not understand how serious STDs are. [10]

I don’t have the Australian figures, but “ten to twenty million American women are now sterile because of sexual infections from promiscuity; the figures may go as high as one-fourth of all women of childbearing age.” [11]

When you play around sexually before or after marriage, you aren’t just participating in an innocent private affair for consenting adults. Your so-called private acts may infect your spouse and children for as long as they live–some STDs are not curable (I’m not just talking about HIV). “One chance encounter can infect a person with as many as five different diseases.” [12]

When you have sex with somebody other than your faithful marriage partner, you are having contact with every sexually transmitted disease that person has had contact with. And don’t kid yourself that the other person will be honest about the sexually transmitted diseases he or she has or how many sex partners he or she has had.

Even on this physical level, God’s law makes utter common sense:

3d-red-star-small “You shall not commit adultery” (Ex 20:14).

3d-red-star-small “Flee from sexual immorality” (I Cor 6:18).

Christian values are being degraded in Australia, but the simple fact is: abiding by God’s values would have prevented the entire STD epidemic. Christian obstetrician and gynaecologist, Dr. Joe McIllhaney puts it so well:

“If sex is avoided until marriage and then engaged in only in marriage, all these sexually transmitted diseases would be of no importance at all because they could not enter into a closed circle relationship between husband and wife. Such an approach is not only not naive, it is also not moralizing, but it is now necessary.”[13]



We must begin by understanding the character of God.

  • not a killjoy wanting to ruin your fun,
  • he didn’t make us to enjoy sex and then frustrate us,
  • God made and designed us,
  • He knows everything.
  • Only God knows what is best for us.

i love you 2   Just Love  All You Need Is Love  Love You Forever

Deuteronomy 10:13, “Observe the Lord’s commands and decrees that I am giving you today for your own good.”

Those last four words are critical: for your own good. All of God’s commands to us, all of his requirements are not to break us and kill our joy, but they are for our own good.

Psalm 84:11, “For the Lord God is a sun and shield; the Lord bestows favor and honor; no good thing does he withhold from those whose walk is blameless.

James 1:17, “Every good and perfect gift is from above, coming down from the Father of the heavenly lights, who does not change like shifting shadows.”

He knows how your total being works–body, mind and spirit. God knows how human relationships function most fully and joyfully. God is not trying to stop us from having a wonderful sex life. He is giving us the positive instruction to have the most wonderful sex life possible.

I have found many Christians ignorant of this perspective. I was ignorant of it for many years and it destroyed my approach to sex in my teens.

If you look on God’s commands–you shall not commit adultery, flee sexual immorality, etc., as negative and designed to frustrate your enjoyment, you will miss what God wants for your sexual enjoyment. Remember, these negatives are given for positive reasons.

When my children were young, I warned them: do not touch a hot stove plate. That was very negative and it looked like I might have been stopping them from having fun. But it was really a positive command. If my Paul had burned himself, it would have prevented him from enjoying life for a while–maybe permanently.

That’s how it is with God: Whenever he gives a command, there are at least two positive reasons behind it:

1. He’s trying to protect us from some harm, and2. He’s trying to provide something good for us.



(Rolled-up condom Wikipedia)


One of the greatest pressures for you today will come in this form.



6pointGold-small As young people, you are bombarded with the message: Sex is great whenever you can get it, and that waiting for marriage is for fuddy-duddy’s–incredibly old fashioned people like me.”

I remember the story back in 1993 about young Eve (who went from Australia to New Zealand), the 11-year-old who died of AIDS, [14] acquired from an infected blood transfusion. She had not experienced the message she was promoting. This dying child would recite from memory something she had been given to learn: “Always use a condom when you have sex with your lover.” [15] What a shame that an innocent young dying child should be used to promote the myth of safe sex.

One of your greatest threats is that you may be CONNED BY THE CONDOM message. This is one of my major concerns for youth. You are in danger of submitting to the propaganda that condom use will make “safe sex” possible.

What the government and media don’t trumpet loudly is this:

1. The “safe sex” message is a disaster in the making. Condoms have a failure rate of at least 15.7%. I have yet to see this as a significant emphasis in any of the government or advertising programs.

15.7% failure rate for condoms represents the percentage of married women using the condom as a contraceptive, who will become pregnant over the course of a year.

It seems that you also are not being told clearly this information: It is possible to become pregnant once a month–a woman can conceive only one-three days per month. But we can only guess how high the failure rate for condoms must be in preventing disease, which can be transmitted 31 days of every month–365 days a year. [16]

2. You also will not be told that the failure rate of condoms in the survey I have just mentioned was shockingly higher for certain groups of people: among young, unmarried, minority women (in the US this generally means black women) the failure rate was over one-in-three (36.3%). Among unmarried Hispanic (generally, Mexican) women in the US, it is as high as 44.5%–that’s approaching one-in-two condoms will fail.[17]3. You will not be told condoms cannot be accurately tested for AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. So researchers have been studying surgical gloves made out of latex, the same material as condoms.

They found “channels” of 5 microns width penetrated the entire thickness of the glove. [18]

The HIV virus measures .1 of a micron. [19]

In other words, the latex of condoms has channels through it that are 50 times wider than the HIV virus, which makes it a possibility that the virus could seep through the rubber (latex) of the condom.

4. The Bible is very clear that God’s purpose for you is to save your sexual relationship until marriage. Sexual purity before marriage and sexual fidelity in marriage are God’s plan. However, I ask you: based on the information I have just shared with you about condoms, do you think youth should be taught to abstain from sex until marriage?

No other approach to the epidemic of sexually transmitted diseases will work. Abstain from sex before marriage and be faithful in marriage. That’s exactly what God designed for the maximum sexual joy of human beings. The “safe sex” message you are getting from schools, universities, the government, the mass media, is a disaster in the making.

I believe it is criminal for me or anybody to tell you that that little latex device, called a condom, is “safe.” You are risking life-long pain and even death for a brief encounter of pleasure.



What do you think the “professionals” who advocate “safe sex” would say about the information I have just shared with you, if they were sitting in on my message today? Would they call me a scare-monger who is undermining what the government is doing to prevent the spread of HIV and other sexually transmitted diseases? Would they say I am out of touch?

I have been in the counselling field for 34 years, 17 years full time as a counsellor and counselling manager. I deal with real people with real diseases. I am seeing the sad consequences of people who thought they could get away with the ‘safe sex’ message and are living with the highly infectious, appallingly painful blisters of genital herpes.

I will not go into what gonorrhoea, syphilis, chlamydia (pelvic inflammatory disease), HIV, and other STDs can do. “Sleeping around has always been unhealthy, now it is becoming suicidal.” [20]

What would the “professionals” say about my warning? I’ll give just one example. Dr. Theresa Crenshaw, past president of the American Association of Sex Education, Counsellors and Therapists, and a member of the national AIDS Commission, had first-hand experience with the “professionals.” She says this:

On June 19, 1987, I gave a lecture on AIDS to 800 sexologists at the World Congress of Sexologie in Heidelberg [Germany]. Most of them recommended condoms to their clients and students. I asked them if they had available the partner of their dreams, and knew that person carried the virus, would they have sex, depending on a condom for protection? No one raised [his/her] hand. After a long delay, one timid hand surfaced from the back of the room. I told them that it was irresponsible to give advice to others that they would not follow themselves. The point is, putting a mere balloon between the healthy body and the deadly disease is not safe (emphasis added). [21], [22]

J.  More recent statistics

The story of the condom tragedy hasn’t changed. What is more recent research saying? The following “Teen Sex and Pregnancy: Facts and Figures” provide statistics that are just as alarming as in the late 1980s [23].

In preventing pregnancy, condoms have a standardized failure rate of 15.7 percent over the course of a year. [EF Jones and JD Forrest, “Contraceptive Failure in the US: Revised Estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth” Family Perspectives, Vol. 21, No. 3, May/June 1989, p.103.]

For persons under the age of 18, condoms were found to fail 18.4 percent of the time after one year of use. [MD Hayward and J Yogi, “Contraceptive Failure Rate in the US: Estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth,” Family Perspectives, Vol 18, No. 5, Sept/Oct 1986, p. 204.]

Among sexually active teenage girls aged 12 to 18, 30% contracted an STD over a six month period, including condom users. [LM Dinerman et al, Archives of Pediatrics and Adolescent Med, 149(9):967-72, Sept 1995.]

For unmarried minorities, the condom failure rate is 36.3 percent, and for unmarried Hispanics, the failure rate is as high as 44.5 percent. [Jones and Forrest, 1989, p. 105.]

Among married couples where one partner was HIV-positive, 17 percent of the uninfected spouses contracted the disease, despite the use of condoms. [Contraceptive Technology, Hatcher et al, 1990, p. 173.] That is a rate greater than one in six. Statistically speaking, the uninfected partners would have been better off playing Russian Roulette.

Only 7 percent of HIV positive persons voluntarily notify their sexual partners. [New England Journal of Medicine, Jan 9, 1992.] For a more recent discussion of this HIV partner notification issue, see,

1. Update on Condoms & Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)

a. Are condoms a safe protection against STDs?

“Latex or polyurethane (plastic) condoms are useful in helping to prevent certaindiseases, such as HIV and gonorrhea. However, they are less effective protecting against herpes, trichomoniasis, and chlamydia. Condoms provide almost no protection against HPV, the cause of genital warts and cervical cancer” [24]

b. In particular are condoms a save way to prevent contracting HIV/AIDS?

Although condoms will reduce your chance of infection, compared to having sex without any form of protection, one in three AIDS victims will contract the disease from an infected partner despite 100% use of condoms. One study found that among married couples where one partner was HIV-positive, 17% of the uninfected spouses contracted the disease, despite the use of condoms. The best way to prevent AIDS is abstinence. [24]

Another has emphasised: “There is only one way to protect ourselves from the deadly [sexual] diseases that lie in wait. It is abstinence before marriage, then marriage and mutual fidelity for life to an uninfected partner. Anything less is potentially suicidal” and definitely against God’s purpose for your sexual expression. [25]

Perhaps you’re saying, “That is not realistic today. It won’t work. Kids will not put it into practice.”

Some will.  Some won’t. I want to be honest. But it is still the only ultimately successful answer, and I must warn you of the bad consequences of the “safe sex” message. If I knew my teenager was going to have intercourse, I would not recommend the use of the condom because it gives five dangerous messages. They are:

1. You can achieve “safe sex.” From what I’ve said so far, it should be evident that that is not possible.

2. It tells you that everybody is doing it–that’s not so.

3. It says that responsible adults expect you to do it. I never want to give any young person that information.

4. If I tell you to use a condom, it gives you the message that it’s a good thing. I hope I’ve shown you that it is not, and terribly dangerous.

5. Another danger of recommending condoms is that it has the potential to breed promiscuity–sleeping around with anybody.

These are five destructive messages I NEVER want to convey to any young people. “Safe sex” is a very dangerous message.

Our society does not want to give you the message: Say, “No,” to premarital sex. Of course, that would be imposing their views on you if they promoted abstinence–and that would be moralistic. However, what do you think the “safe sex” message is? Just that! Imposing the view that sex with anybody is okay, as long as the male wears a condom.

If you want to consider more reasons for saying “NO” to premarital sex, I suggest reading Why Wait? by Josh McDowell and Dick Day. [27]

Heb. 13:4, “Marriage should be honoured by all, and the marriage bed kept pure, for God will judge the adulterer and all the sexually immoral.”

In I Thess. 4:3-8, God says he will judge sexual immorality. God is holy and will judge those who break his commands.

King David’s sin with Bathsheba (2 Sam. 11-12) is a perfect example of this. Out of adultery a child was born, and in judgment God took the son’s life. It was a painful judgment for David.

Remember this: the Lord doesn’t always judge immediately, but it is always sure. Stay pure for God. God doesn’t want you to suffer at the hands of his justice.

If you abstain from sex now, it is because God wants you to experience greater intimacy later–in marriage. But God is also calling you before marriage to greater intimacy with Himself.



Young people, there are many valid reasons for you to say “NO” to premarital sex. God really is acting in love when He commands that sex be enjoyed with in the bonds of marriage.

This is a message of prevention for those who are virgins. God loves you and wants to protect you from entering into the damaging consequences of illicit sex.

On the other hand, I know there may be some here today for whom this message is too late–you have lost your virginity, you are loaded down with guilt, you know what I have been saying is true. What can you do?

Run to Jesus. You cannot undo what you have done, but you can be forgiven. God will lay down all charges against you if you repent and ask his forgiveness. The biblical message for all Christians who sin is I John 1:9, “If we confess our sin, he is faithful and just and will forgive us our sins and purify us from all unrighteousness.”

You can be forgiven today. If the Lord has convicted you about sexual sin in your life, respond to him. I am not going to embarrass you by asking you to respond publicly, but I am asking you to go and speak with your leaders or a trusted Christian friend who will pray and counsel with you.

Please remember: what is shared with you in confidence, stays confidential.


Do you want sex at its best?

Flower18 Wait for the sexual relationship until marriage.

Flower18 If that is too late, confess your sin and remain chaste.

Flower18 Be faithful in marriage.

The story is told of Alexander the Great who was reviewing his troops after a fierce battle. He encountered one of his captains disciplining a soldier for being a coward. Alexander approached.

“What is your name, soldier?” he asked.

“Alexander,” replied the soldier.

“What?” exclaimed Alexander the Great.

“Sir, my name is Alexander!” said the soldier.

Trembling with rage, Alexander the Great yelled, “Soldier, either change your ways, or you change your name.” [26]

As soldiers in Christ’s army, we must stop acting cowardly in the face of sexual temptation, or we should change our name–which will have eternal consequences. In this sexually perverted generation, the words of I Corinthians 4:20 come thundering through: “For the kingdom of God is not a matter of talk but of power.” Change your ways or change your name.

First Corinthians 7:2-5 (NLT) is a key passage in understanding God’s view of sex at its best.


[1] I have since located it on the Internet as ‘Break Up Quote #177582’, Witty, available at: (Accessed 30 November 2013).

[2] Al Haffner, The High Cost of Free Love. San Bernardino, California: Here’s Life Publishers, 1989, p. 11.

[3] Ibid., p. 15.

[4] Ibid., p. 19.

[5] Ibid.

[6] Ibid.,

[7] Ibid, p. 31

[8] Ibid, p. 34

[9] Ibid.

[10] In John Ankerberg & John Weldon, The Myth of Safe Sex. Chicago: Moody Press, 1993, chapter 5).

[11] Ibid., p. 54.

[12] Ibid., p. 57.

[13] In ibid., p. 63.

[14] The Canberra Times, 21 November 1993, p. 1.

[15] The Canberra Times letter-to-the-editor, November 27, 1993, p. 16.

[16] This statistic comes from Planned Parenthood, USA: Elise F. Jones and Jacqueline Darroch Forrest, “Contraceptive Failure in the United States: Revised estimates from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth,” Family Planning Perspectives, Vol. 21 No. 3, May/June 1989, p. 103.

[17] Ibid., p. 105.

[18] Susan G. Arnold, James E. Whitman Jr., Cecil H. Fox and Michele H. Cottier-Fox, “Latex Gloves Not Enough to Exclude Viruses,” Nature 335, (September 1, 1988), p. 19.

[19] Nancy E. Dirruba, “The Condom Barrier,” American Journal of Nursing, October 1987, p. 1306.

[20] Patrick Dixon, The Truth About AIDS. Eastbourne, E. Sussex, United Kingdom: Kingsway Publications, 1987, 29.

[21] Theresa Crenshaw. From remarks made at the National Conference on HIV, Washington DC, November 15-18, 1987.

[22] All of the above quotes on condoms are from: “Condom Roulette,” In Focus, Family Research Council, 700 Thirteenth St., NW, Suite 500, Washington, DC, 20005.

[23] Westside Pregnancy Resource Center (2002a), 12247 Santa Monica Blvd., W. Los Angeles CA 90025, homepage at: These statistics on “Teen Sex and Pregnancy: Facts and Figures” were retrieved on May 26, 2002 from: See also Drew, D. (1995). “Condom ‘safe sex’ theory full of holes,” retrieved on May 26, 2002 from (based on an article written for The Covington News, March 16, 1995).

[24] Westside Pregnancy Resource Center (2002b). “Birth Control Questions & Answers: Frequently Asked Questions,” retrieved on May 26, 2002, from:

[25] James Dobson, Focus on the Family newsletter, February 13, 1992, p. 3.

[26] Haffner, p. 91.

[27] McDowell, J. & Day, D. (1987) Why Wait? What You Need to Know About the Teen Sexuality Crisis. San Bernardino, CA: Here’s Life Publishers.

God’s rules for living are always meant for our best and NEVER to hurt or restrict us.


Copyright (c) 2007 Spencer D. Gear.  This document last updated at: 14 October 2015.