Can You Trust Your Bible? Part 2

A.Why do we need to defend the Bible today?

Spencer D Gear

1. When you tune into the mass media today (TV, radio, newspaper) what do you see and read about the Bible and Christ?

2. This mass media message is impacting on regular people in the church and we must provide answers.

3. The Bible requires that we provide a defence of the faith in every age of history. We urgently need it today, but we evangelicals have become lazy. Apologetics is not a prominent theological discipline in most of our Bible training colleges. 1 Peter 3:15 (ESV) states: “But in your hearts regard Christ the Lord as holy, always being prepared to make a defense to anyone who asks you for a reason for the hope that is in you.”

Christian parents sometimes urge their teenagers concerning the Bible: “Accept it by faith. God requires you just to believe it.” However, the Quran says it is “infallible” and the Bible says it is “God-breathed/inspired.” Which one do you believe? We must provide evidence, just as Jesus did to doubting Thomas. Jesus did not say, “Just believe that I am the crucified and resurrected one.” Jesus showed him the nail prints in his hands. We must provide all people, especially the young, with evidence for the Christian faith — including evidence for the trustworthiness of the Bible.

B.The focus of this 3-part series on the trustworthy Bible

Instead of assuming the Bible is the Word of God, we can begin by:

1. Demonstrating that the Scriptures are reliable historical documents.

2. In these documents, Jesus claims to be God in human flesh, and he bases His claim on His forthcoming resurrection.

3. We examine the evidence for the resurrection in this historic document and find that the arguments overwhelmingly support the fact that Christ actually rose from the dead. This demonstrates that He is the unique Son of God that He claimed to be. If He is God, then He speaks with authority on all matters.

4. Since Christ is God, then He speaks the truth concerning the absolute divine authority of the Old Testament (Matt. 5:17-18; 15:1-3) and the soon-to-be written New Testament. [1a]

C.Begin with the existence of God

Hebrews 11:6 (NIV) reads: “And without faith it is impossible to please God, because anyone who comes to him must believe that he exists and that he rewards those who earnestly seek him.”

What evidence would you give for the existence of God?

I suggest an examination of passages of Scripture that give us a direction in which to go:

  • Psalm 19:1-3 (ESV):

The heavens declare the glory of God,
and the sky above proclaims his handiwork.
Day to day pours out speech,
and night to night reveals knowledge.
There is no speech, nor are there words,
whose voice is not heard.

  • Romans 1: 18-20 (ESV):

For the wrath of God is revealed from heaven against all ungodliness and unrighteousness of men, who by their unrighteousness suppress the truth. For what can be known about God is plain to them, because God has shown it to them. For his invisible attributes, namely, his eternal power and divine nature, have been clearly perceived, ever since the creation of the world, in the things that have been made. So they are without excuse.

What tests do historians apply to any piece of literature of history to determine if it is accurate or reliable?

Military historian, C. Sanders, states that there are three basic principles for checking the authenticity of historical writings (historiography). I’ll use the acronym, T.I.E.S., to help us remember them:

1. The Transmission test (sometimes called, the bibliographical test) — NOT biographical, but biblio = books; graphical = writing.
2. The Internal evidence test
3. The External evidence test. [1b]

We’ll get to the “S” later. What it might be that T.I.E.S. this all together?

Let’s subject the New Testament to the

D.The Transmission Test

The transmission test is an examination of how the documents reached us from when they were written. Since we don’t have the original documents, how reliable are the copies we have in:

    • number of manuscripts (MSS)?
    • time interval between the original and the earliest copy?

1.New Testament

Transmission Test for Historical Documents (incl. New Testament)



Earliest Copies

Time Gap

No. of Copies


Hindu Mahabharata

13th century B.C.



c. 400 B.C.

A.D. c. 900

1300 yrs




900 B.C.
(900-700 B.C.?)

400 B.C. ?

500 yrs ?




300 B.C.

A. D. c. 1100

1,400 yrs



Gallic Wars

100-44 B.C.

A.D. 900

1,000 yrs



Tacitus, Annals

A.D. 100

1100 A.D.

1,000 yrs



Pliny Secundus,
Natural History

A.D. 61-113

c. A.D. 850

750 yrs



The chart above is a comparison of ancient manuscript totals (Josh McDowell, Christianity: Hoax or History? Tyndale House Publishers, 1989, pp. 50-51; Norman L. Geisler & William E. Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible. Moody Press, 1986, p. 408)

2.An Assessment

I am in agreement with the late Sir Frederic G. Kenyon, formerly director and principal librarian of the British Museum, who wrote just before his death:

“The interval then between the dates of original composition and the earliest extant evidence becomes so small as to be in fact negligible, and the last foundation for any doubt that the Scriptures have come down to us substantially as they were written has now been removed. Both the authenticity and the general integrity of the books of the New Testament may be regarded as finally established.”[2]

  • These people who were used by the Lord to write the New Testament, were living in a hostile culture. The disciples could not afford to risk inaccuracies. They would dare not manipulate the facts because they would be challenged by those who wanted to discredit them.
  • A witness must testify of his/her own knowledge. When we apply this to the NT, we see clearly that we have primary evidence from eyewitnesses. I John 1:1 states, ” That which was from the beginning, which we have heard, which we have seen with our eyes, which we have looked at and our hands have touched–this we proclaim concerning the Word of life (NIV).” [3]

In determining if the NT is a trustworthy and accurate document, historians use three tests. I am suggesting these 3, plus one more, that are summarised in the acronym: T.I.E.S.

We’ve look at the “T,” the transmission of the text, now to the “I”.

E.Internal Evidence Test

So far, we’ve determined, beyond reasonable doubt, that the text we have is what was originally recorded. But we still have to determine that the documents are credible, and to what extent. This is the second test of historicity given by Sanders. Historical and literary scholarship follows Aristotle’s dictum, “The benefit of the doubt is to be given to the document itself, not arrogated by the critic to himself.”

In the words of leading lawyer, apologist and theologian, John Warwick Montgomery, “This means that one must listen to the claims of the document under analysis, and not assume fraud or error unless the author disqualifies himself by contradictions or known factual inaccuracies.” [4]

The historian must examine the ability of the writer or witness to tell the truth. In addition to the integrity of the witness, the ability to tell the truth is closely related to how close the witness was to the event geographically and how close in time the witness was to the events recorded.

The NT accounts of the life and teaching of Jesus were recorded by people who had been either eyewitnesses or who related the accounts of eyewitnesses.

Let’s examine the evidence:

A.Biblical Evidence

Luke 1:1-3 (NIV): Many have undertaken to draw up an account of the things that have been fulfilled among us, just as they were handed down to us by those who from the first were eyewitnesses and servants of the word. Therefore, since I myself have carefully investigated everything from the beginning, it seemed good also to me to write an orderly account for you, most excellent Theophilus.

Luke 3:1: In the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar–when Pontius Pilate was governor of Judea, Herod tetrarch of Galilee, his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea and Traconitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene–

John 19:35: The man who saw it has given testimony, and his testimony is true. He knows that he tells the truth, and he testifies so that you also may believe.

1 John 1:3: We proclaim to you what we have seen and heard, so that you also may have fellowship with us. And our fellowship is with the Father and with his Son, Jesus Christ.

2 Peter 1:16: We did not follow cleverly invented stories when we told you about the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but we were eyewitnesses of his majesty.

The internal evidence test for the Gospels and some epistles reveals that we are dealing with eyewitnesses, those who saw and heard.ย  More than that:

  • Acts 2:22: demonstrated how they appealed to the people who heard their message. “Men of Israel, listen to this: Jesus of Nazareth was a man accredited by God to you by miracles, wonders and signs, which God did among you through him, as you yourselves know.”

Note the emphasis: “God did among you through him.” In other words, you were there; you were eyewitnesses of these things;

  • Also, “as you yourselves know.” You know what we are saying is true.
  • ยทThey could not depart from the truth. There were hostile witnesses there to refute them. [5]

Acts 26:24-26: At this point Festus interrupted Paul’s defence. “You are out of your mind, Paul!” he shouted. “Your great learning is driving you insane.” “I am not insane, most excellent Festus,” Paul replied. “What I am saying is true and reasonable. The king is familiar with these things, and I can speak freely to him. I am convinced that none of this has escaped his notice, because it was not done in a corner.”

They not only said, “Look, we saw this . . . We heard that.” But the tables were turned in the full view of hostile witnesses, adverse critics. “You also know about these things, you saw them, they weren’t done in a secret corner.” [6]

B.Fulfilled Prophecy

Old Testament Prophecies of Christ & New Testament Fulfillment

The following are a few key Old Testament prophecies concerning Christ and their New Testament fulfillment. (All Bible quotes are from the English Standard Version, ESV.) This summary is based on James Kennedy’s Evangelism Explosion program. [7]

Old Testament Prophecy New Testament Fulfillment
Genesis 3:15 โ€“ 4004 B.C.
“I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring and her offspring; he shall bruise your head, and you shall bruise his heel.”

Galatians 4:4 โ€“ 5 B.C. But when the fullness of time had come, God sent forth his Son, born of woman, born under the law.
1 John 3:8 โ€“ A.D. 90. Whoever makes a practice of sinning is of the devil, for the devil has been sinning from the beginning. The reason the Son of God appeared was to destroy the works of the devil.
Genesis 22:18 โ€“ 1872 B.C.
And in your offspring shall all the nations of the earth be blessed, because you have obeyed my voice.

John 11:51-52 โ€“ A.D. 33. He did not say this of his own accord, but being high priest that year he prophesied that Jesus would die for the nation, and not for the nation only, but also to gather into one the children of God who are scattered abroad.
Psalm 22:7-8: All who see me mock me; they make mouths at me; they wag their heads; “He trusts in the Lord; let him deliver him; let him rescue him, for he delights in him!”

Matthew 27:39-43 โ€“ A.D. 33. And those who passed by derided him, wagging their heads. . . So also the chief priests, with the scribes and elders, mocked him, saying, . . “He trusts in God; let God deliver him now.”
Psalm 69:21: They gave me poison for food, and for my thirst they gave me sour wine to drink.

Matthew 27:34 โ€“ A.D. 33. They offered him wine to drink, mixed with gall, but when he tasted it, he would not drink it.
Psalm 22:14-15: I am poured out like water, and all my bones are out of joint; my heart is like wax; it is melted within my breast; my strength is dried up like a potsherd, and my tongue sticks to my jaws; you lay me in the dust of death.

Luke 22:42, 44 โ€“ A.D. 33. “Father, if you are willing, remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will, but yours, be done” . . . And being in an agony he prayed more earnestly; and his sweat became like great drops of blood falling down to the ground.
Isaiah 53:7 — 710 B.C. He was oppressed, and he was afflicted, yet he opened not his mouth; like a lamb that is led to the slaughter, and like a sheep that before its shearers is silent, so he opened not his mouth.

Matthew 26:63 — A.D. 30 But Jesus remained silent. . .
Matthew 27:12, 14 — A.D. 30 But when he was accused by the chief priests and elders, he gave no answer. . . But he gave him no answer, not even to a single charge, so that the governor was greatly amazed.
Psalm 22:18. They divide my garments among them, and for my clothing they cast lots.

Matthew 27:35 — A.D. 30. And when they had crucified him, they divided his garments among them by casting lots.
Isaiah 53:12 –712 B.C. Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.

Mark 15:27-28 — A.D. 30. And with him they crucified two robbers, one on his right and one on his left. [28] And the Scripture was fulfilled that says, “He was numbered with the transgressors.” [Note: only some manuscripts insert v. 28.]
Isaiah 53:12 –712 B.C. Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.

Luke 23:34 –A.D. 30. And Jesus said, “Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.” And they cast lots to divide his garments.
Isaiah 53:12 –712 B.C. Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.

Matthew 27:50 — A.D. 30. And Jesus cried out again with a loud voice and yielded up his spirit.
Exodus 12:46 — 1491 B.C. It shall be eaten in one house; you shall not take any of the flesh outside the house, and you shall not break any of its bones.
Psalm 34:20. He keeps all his bones; not one of them is broken.

John 19:33, 36 — A.D. 30. But when they came to Jesus and saw that he was already dead, they did not break his legs. . . For these things took place that the Scripture might be fulfilled: “Not one of his bones will be broken.”
Zech. 12:10 — 487 B.C. “And I will pour out on the house of David and the inhabitants of Jerusalem a spirit of grace and pleas for mercy, so that, when they look on me, on him whom they have pierced, they shall mourn for him, as one mourns for an only child, and weep bitterly over him, as one weeps over a firstborn.
John 19:34, 37 –A.D. 30. But one of the soldiers pierced his side with a spear, and at once there came out blood and water. . . And again another Scripture says, “They will look on him whom they have pierced.”
Isaiah 53:9 — 712 B.C. And they made his grave with the wicked and with a rich man in his death, although he had done no violence, and there was no deceit in his mouth.

Matthew 27:57-60 — A.D. 30. When it was evening, there came a rich man from Arimathea, named Joseph, who also was a disciple of Jesus. He went to Pilate and asked for the body of Jesus. Then Pilate ordered it to be given to him. And Joseph took the body and wrapped it in a clean linen shroud and laid it in his own new tomb, which he had cut in the rock. And he rolled a great stone to the entrance of the tomb and went away.
Psalm 16:10. For you will not abandon my soul to Sheol, or let your holy one see corruption.

Luke 24:6, 31, 33-34 — A.D. 30. He is not here, but has risen. Remember how he told you, while he was still in Galilee . . . And their eyes were opened, and they recognized him. And he vanished from their sight. . . And they rose that same hour and returned to Jerusalem. And they found the eleven and those who were with them gathered together, saying, “The Lord has risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!”
Psalm 68:18. You ascended on high, leading a host of captives in your train and receiving gifts among men, even among the rebellious, that the Lord God may dwell there.

Luke 24:51 — A.D. 30. While he blessed them, he parted from them and was carried up into heaven.
Psalm 110:1. The Lord says to my Lord: “Sit at my right hand, until I make your enemies your footstool.”

Hebrews 1:3b — A.D. 30. After making purification for sins, he sat down at the right hand of the Majesty on high.
Isaiah 11:10 — 713 B.C. In that day the root of Jesse, who shall stand as a signal for the peoplesโ€”of him shall the nations inquire, and his resting place shall be glorious.
Isaiah 42:1 –712 B.C. Behold my servant, whom I uphold, my chosen, in whom my soul delights; I have put my Spirit upon him; he will bring forth justice to the nations.

Acts 10:45 –A.D. 34. And the believers from among the circumcised who had come with Peter were amazed, because the gift of the Holy Spirit was poured out even on the Gentiles.
Isaiah 53:4-6, 12 — 712 B.C. Surely he has borne our griefs and carried our sorrows. . . But he was wounded for our transgressions; he was crushed for our iniquities;
upon him was the chastisement that brought us peace,
and with his stripes we are healed. All we like sheep have gone astray; we have turned every one to his own way; and the Lord has laid on him the iniquity of us all. . .
Therefore I will divide him a portion with the many, and he shall divide the spoil with the strong, because he poured out his soul to death and was numbered with the transgressors; yet he bore the sin of many, and makes intercession for the transgressors.
Matthew 20:28 — A.D. 33. Even as the Son of Man came not to be served but to serve, and to give his life as a ransom for many.
Malachi 3:1a –397 B.C. Behold, I send my messenger and he will prepare the way before me.
Luke 1:17 –7 B.C. And he will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, and the disobedient to the wisdom of the just, to make ready for the Lord a people prepared.”
Isaiah 9:1-2 –740 B.C. But there will be no gloom for her who was in anguish. In the former time he brought into contempt the land of Zebulun and the land of Naphtali, but in the latter time he has made glorious the way of the sea, the land beyond the Jordan, Galilee of the nations.
The people who walked in darkness have seen a great light; those who dwelt in a land of deep darkness, on them has light shined.
Matthew 4:12, 16, 23 –A.D. 27.
Now when he heard that John had been arrested, he withdrew into Galilee. . . The people dwelling in darkness have seen a great light, and for those dwelling in the region and shadow of death, on them a light has dawned” . . . And he went throughout all Galilee, teaching in their synagogues and proclaiming the gospel of the kingdom and healing every disease and every affliction among the people.
Zech. 9:9 –487 B.C. Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout aloud, O daughter of Jerusalem! behold, your king is coming to you; righteous and having salvation is he, humble and mounted on a donkey, on a colt, the foal of a donkey.
Matthew 21:5 — A.D. 33. “Say to the daughter of Zion, ‘Behold, your king is coming to you, humble, and mounted on a donkey, and on a colt, the foal of a beast of burden.’ “
Isaiah 35:5-6 –713 B.C. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf unstopped; then shall the lame man leap like a deer, and the tongue of the mute sing for joy. For waters break forth in the wilderness, and streams in the desert;
Matthew 11:4-6 — A.D. 31. And Jesus answered them, “Go and tell John what you hear and see: the blind receive their sight and the lame walk, lepers are cleansed and the deaf hear, and the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached to them. And blessed is the one who is not offended by me.”
Psalm 69:8. I have become a stranger to my brothers,
an alien to my mother’s sons.
Isaiah 63:3 — 698 B.C. “I have trodden the winepress alone, and from the peoples no one was with me; I trod them in my anger and trampled them in my wrath; their lifeblood spattered on my garments, and stained all my apparel.
John 1:11 — A.D. 30. He came to his own, and his own people did not receive him.
John 7:3, 5 –A.D. 32. So his brothers said to him, “Leave here and go to Judea, that your disciples also may see the works you are doing. . . For not even his brothers believed in him.
Psalm 2:1-2. Why do the nations rageand the peoples plot in vain? The kings of the earth set themselves, and the rulers take counsel together, against the Lord and against his anointed, saying,
Acts 4:27 — A.D. 33. For truly in this city there were gathered together against your holy servant Jesus, whom you anointed, both Herod and Pontius Pilate, along with the Gentiles and the peoples of Israel,
Psalm 41:9. Even my close friend in whom I trusted, who ate my bread, has lifted his heel against me.
John 13:18-21 –A.D. 33. I am not speaking of all of you; I know whom I have chosen. But the Scripture will be fulfilled, ‘He who ate my bread has lifted his heel against me.’ I am telling you this now, before it takes place, that when it does take place you may believe that I am he. Truly, truly, I say to you, whoever receives the one I send receives me, and whoever receives me receives the one who sent me.”
After saying these things, Jesus was troubled in his spirit, and testified, “Truly, truly, I say to you, one of you will betray me.”
Zechariah 11:12 — 487 B.C. Then I said to them, “If it seems good to you, give me my wages; but if not, keep them.” And they weighed out as my wages thirty pieces of silver.
Matthew 26:15 — A.D. 33. “What will you give me if I deliver him over to you?” And they paid him thirty pieces of silver.
Zechariah 11:13 — 487 B.C. Then the Lord said to me, “Throw it to the potter”โ€” the lordly price at which I was priced by them. So I took the thirty pieces of silver and threw them into the house of the Lord, to the potter.
Matthew 27:3, 7 — A.D. 33.
Then when Judas, his betrayer, saw that Jesus was condemned, he changed his mind and brought back the thirty pieces of silver to the chief priests and the elders. . . So they took counsel and bought with them the potter’s field as a burial place for strangers.
Isaiah 50:6 — 712 B.C. I gave my back to those who strike, and my cheeks to those who pull out the beard;
I hid not my face from disgrace and spitting.
Mark 14:65 — A.D. 33. And some began to spit on him and to cover his face and to strike him, saying to him, “Prophesy!” And the guards received him with blows.
Psalm 22:16. For dogs encompass me; a company of evildoers encircles me; they have pierced my hands and feet.
John 19:18 — A.D. 33. There they crucified him, and with him two others, one on either side, and Jesus between them.
John 20:25 — A.D. 33.
So the other disciples told him, “We have seen the Lord.” But he said to them, “Unless I see in his hands the mark of the nails, and place my finger into the mark of the nails, and place my hand into his side, I will never believe.”

C.Literal Interpretation

Those who accept the Bible as the Word of God are often accused of taking the Bible literally. The question ‘Do you believe the Bible literally?’ is like the question, ‘Have you stopped beating your wife?’ Either a Yes or a No convicts the one who responds. Whenever the question is asked, the term ‘literally‘ must be carefully defined. Taking a literal view of the Bible does not mean that we can’t recognize that figures of speech are used in the Scripture. When Isaiah spoke of “trees clapping their hands” (Isaiah 55:12) and the psalmist of “mountains skipping like rams” (Psalms 114:4, 6), it is not to be thought that one takes the Bible literally views such statements as literal. No, there is poetry as well as prose and other literary forms in the Bible. We believe that the Bible is to be interpreted in the sense in which the authors intended it to be received by readers. This is the same principle one employs when reading the newspaper, [William Shakespeare or William Wordsworth]. And it is remarkably easy to distinguish between figures of speech and those statements a writer intends his readers to take literally.” [8]

T: Transmission Test

I: Internal Evidence Test

E: External Evidence Test

And there’s an “S” that TIES them all together!

“What Scripture says, God says. . . When we say what God says we have his authority”[9]


1a. Josh McDowell & Don Stewart, Answers to Tough Questions. San Bernardino, California: Here’s Life Publishers, 1980, pp. 147-148.

Note: The four points in McDowell & Stewart seem to be an abbreviated version, taken from John W. Montgomery’s points for the “crux validation” of the New Testament:

1. On the basis of accepted principles of textual and historical analysis, the Gospel records are found to be trustworthy historical documents — primary source evidence for the life of Christ,
2. In these records, Jesus exercises divine prerogatives and claims to be God in human flesh; and He rests His claims on His forthcoming resurrection.
3. In all four Gospels, Christ’s bodily resurrection is described in minute detail; Christ’s resurrection evidences His deity.
4. The fact of the resurrection cannot be discounted on a priori, philosophical grounds; miracles are impossible only if one so defines them — but such definition rules out proper historical investigation.
5. If Christ is God, then He speaks the truth concerning the absolute divine authority of the Old Testament and of the soon-to-be-written New Testament. [John Warwick Montgomery, The Suicide of Christian Theology. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany Fellowship Inc., 1970, n. 58, p. 306. Montgomery states that this summary is based on his book, Shape of the Past, n. 26, pp. 138-39.]

1b. C. Sanders, Introduction to Research in English Literary History. New York: MacMillan Company,
1952, pp. 143 ff.

2. Sir Frederic Kenyon, The Bible and Archaeology. New York: Harper and Row, 1940, pp. 288f, in Norman Geisler and William Nix, A General Introduction to the Bible (Revised and Expanded). Chicago: Moody Press, 1968, 1986, p. 405; also in Josh McDowell, More Than a Carpenter. Eastbourne, Sussex, England: Kingsway Publications, 1977, p. 48.

3. Suggested by John Warwick Montgomery, The Law Above the Law. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany House Publishers, 1975, p. 88.

4. John Warwick Montgomery, History and Christianity. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Bethany House Publishers, 1965, p. 29.

5. Suggested by F. F. Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1960, p. 46.
6. Concerning the primary-source value of the NT records, the late F.F. Bruce, former Professor [Rylands Professor of Biblical Criticism and Exegesis] in the University of Manchester, wrote:

“The earliest preachers of the gospel knew the value of the first-hand testimony, and appealed to it time and again. ‘We are witnesses of these things,’ was their constant and confident assertion. And it can have been by no means so easy as some writers seem to think to invent words and deeds of Jesus in those early years, when so many of His disciples were about, who could remember what had and had not happened. . .

“And it was not only friendly eyewitnesses that the early preachers had to reckon with; there were others less well disposed who were also conversant with the main facts of the ministry of Jesus. The disciples could not afford to risk inaccuracies (not to speak of wilful manipulation of the facts), which would at once be exposed by those who would be only too glad to do so. On the contrary, one of the strong points in the original apostolic preaching is the confident appeal to the knowledge of the hearers; they not only said, ‘We are witnesses of these things,’ but also, ‘As you yourselves also know’ (Acts 2:22). Had there been any tendency to depart from the facts in any material respect, the possible presence of hostile witnesses in the audience would have served as a further corrective” [F. F. Bruce, The New Testament Documents: Are They Reliable? Leicester, England: Inter-Varsity Press, 1960, pp. 45-46.]

7. From D. James Kennedy, Evangelism Explosion, third edition, 1983, pp. 86-88 (Evangelism Explosion Ministries Australia, PO Box 1686, Wollongong, 2500).

8. Paul Little, Know Why You Believe (rev. ed.). Wheaton, IL: Victor Books, 1967, 1980, 1987, pp. 54-55, emphasis added.

9. Bryan Chapell, Christ-Centered Preaching: Redeeming the Expository Sermon. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Book House, 1994, pp. 23, 88.


Copyright (c) 2013 Spencer D. Gear.ย  This document is free content.ย  You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the OpenContent License (OPL) version 1.0, or (at your option) any later version.ย  This document last updated at Date: 5 September 2013.

Whytehouse designs